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Provisions Are Running Out (RS 94.2383 + Rs 94.2619) (3.45MM)

(274 words)

Contributor(s): Hallo, William W.
Subject: Archival Documents from the Biblical World; West Semitic Archival Documents; Letters; Ugaritic Letters; Between Non-Royal Correspondents (39) Provisions Are Running Out (RS 94.2383 + Rs 94.2619) (3.45MM) 1 Address and Greeting (lines 1–5) To ʾUrtēnu, my brother, say: Message of ʿUṯtaya, your sister. May the gods keep you well, may they guard you. The Problem ( lines 6–13) (It has been) three days now that there is no food in your house and for [… someone] struck and provisions CARRY (to) the house of the king. Twice now (someone) has taken …

Two Servants to their Master (RS 29.093) (3.45HH)

(1,007 words)

Contributor(s): Hallo, William W.
Subject: Archival Documents from the Biblical World; West Semitic Archival Documents; Letters; Ugaritic Letters; Between Non-Royal Correspondents (34) Two Servants to their Master (RS 29.093) (3.45HH) 1 Subject: 1 Sam 20:6; Neh 13:6; Neh 3:34; 1 Chr 11:8 Address (lines 1–5) To Yadurma, our master, say: Message of Pinḥaṯu and Yarmîhaddu, your servants.2 Greetings and Prostration Formula ( lines 5–10) May it be well with our master. May the gods guard you, may they keep you well. At the feet of our master twice seven times (from) afar we fall.3 The Problem with Binu-ʿAyāna ( lines…

The King of Tyre to the King of Ugarit in the Matter of Storm-Damaged Ships (RS 18.031) (3.45H)

(1,378 words)

Contributor(s): Hallo, William W.
Subject: Archival Documents from the Biblical World; West Semitic Archival Documents; Letters; Ugaritic Letters; Incoming Correspondence From Other Courts (8) The King of Tyre to the King of Ugarit in the Matter of Storm-Damaged Ships (RS 18.031) (3.45H) 1 Subject: 2 Sam 5:11; 1 Kgs 5:15–25; 9:10–14, 26–27; 10:11, 22; 1 Kgs 18:45; Ezek 13:11, 13; Jon 1:4; Deut 22:9; Gen 12:5; Judg 1:31; 2 Sam 13:33; 19:20; 42:25 Address (lines 1–3) To the king of Ugarit, my brother, say: Message of the king of Tyre, your brother.2  r  Greetings ( lines 4–5) May it be well with you. May the gods guard…

Bequest of Apartment to Wife (3.73)

(2,058 words)

Author(s): Porten, Bezalel
Subject: Archival Documents from the Biblical World; West Semitic Archival Documents; Letters; Egyptian Aramaic Commentary Anani refurbished the house of ʾpwly which he had bought from the Caspians Bagazushta and Wbyl. Three years after purchase date, the requisite period according to Egyptian law for establishing right to abandoned property, he bestowed a room therein (measuring ×1/3 cubits = 81 square cubits, see note 1 below) upon his wife Tamet, perhaps on the occasion of the birth of their daughter Jehoishma (lines 2–12). The Investiture clause did no…

The King to the Queen-Mother In the Matter of the Amurrite Princess (RS 34.124) (3.45D)

(1,486 words)

Contributor(s): Hallo, William W.
Subject: Archival Documents from the Biblical World; West Semitic Archival Documents; Letters; Ugaritic Letters; Correspondence Between Members of the Royal Family (4) The King to the Queen-Mother1 In the Matter of the Amurrite Princess (RS 34.124) (3.45D) 2 Subject: 1 Kgs 2:19; Ps 51:19; 147:3; 19:12; 1 Kgs 11:1–3; 1 Kgs 10:2, 10; 1 Sam 10:1; 16:1, 13; 1 Kgs 1:39; 2 Kgs 9:1–3, 6; Pss 23:5; 133:2; Exod 20:5–6 Address (lines 1–3) [To the queen, my mother, say: Message of the] k[ing, your son.] Prostration and Greeting Formulae ( line 4–6) At my mother’s feet [I fall]. j With my mother 〈ma…

Ophel Ostracon (3.86)

(927 words)

Author(s): Younger, K. Lawson, Jr.
Subject: Archival Documents from the Biblical World; West Semitic Archival Documents; Accounts; Hebrew Ostraca Commentary This fragmentary ostracon (× cm) was discovered during excavations on the Ophel (area south of the temple mount in Jerusalem) by J. G. Duncan in 1924, although in an unstratified context. It can be dated on palaeographic grounds to the end of the seventh or the beginning of the sixth century bce. While the ostracon appears to have contained eight lines, the left side of the inscription and lines 4–7 are no longer legible. Moreover, some of …

The Bukān Inscription (3.89)

(751 words)

Author(s): Younger, K. Lawson, Jr.
Subject: Archival Documents from the Biblical World; West Semitic Archival Documents; Miscellaneous Texts; Aramaic Stela Fragment Commentary This inscription was discovered in two fragments: the major piece was found in archaeological excavations in 1985 at Tapeh Qalâychi near Bukān, southeast of Lake Urmia in Azerbaijan, Iran; the other, smaller piece, was recovered on the antiquities market in 1990.1 Together the fragments (.×.5 m) preserve only the last thirteen lines of an Old Aramaic inscription. Although much of the original text that was abo…

Instructions Regarding Children and Inquiry Regarding Passover (TAD D7.6) (3.87A)

(1,314 words)

Author(s): Porten, Bezalel
Subject: Archival Documents from the Biblical World; West Semitic Archival Documents; Miscellaneous Texts; Aramaic Ostraca Commentary Published by Archibald Henry Sayce in 1911 (Bodleian Aramaic Inscription 7) and variously dubbed the Oxford Ostracon ( DAE 94) or the Passover Ostracon (Fitzmyer and Kaufman 1992), this piece is an unexpected blend of concern for the care and diet of the children of Aḥutab during her absence and inquiry into when the Passover was to be observed. Attaching this query to matters banal leaves the i…

The Mibtahiah Archive (471–410 bce) (3.P141)

(513 words)

Author(s): Porten, Bezalel
Subject: Archival Documents from the Biblical World; West Semitic Archival Documents; Letters; Egyptian Aramaic Commentary In 1904, eleven Aramaic papyri were acquired from a dealer in Aswan by the British benefactors Lady William Cecil ( COS COSB.3.60, COSB.3.64, COSB.3.68, and half of COSB.3.63) and Mr. (later Sir) Robert Mond (COSB.3.61–62, COSB.3.65–67, and half of COSB.3.63) and by the Bodleian Library in Oxford (COSB.3.59). The Cecil-Mond papyri are housed in the Egyptian Museum in Cairo and all were publis…

Loan of Grain (3.81)

(1,367 words)

Author(s): Porten, Bezalel
Subject: Archival Documents from the Biblical World; West Semitic Archival Documents; Letters; Egyptian Aramaic Commentary This is the only loan document for grain and we cannot tell for certain whether it was drawn up after Anani son of Haggai bought his in-laws’ apartment or before (COSB.3.80), since it lacked day date. In the middle of December, in the first month of the Egyptian year, Anani went to Syene to borrow from the Egyptian-named Aramean, Pakhnum son of Besa, 2 peras 3 seah of emmer (approximately …

Petition for Reconstruction of Temple (?) (draft) (3.50)

(2,320 words)

Author(s): Porten, Bezalel
Subject: Archival Documents from the Biblical World; West Semitic Archival Documents; Letters; Aramaic Letters; The Jedaniah Archive From Elephantine Commentary This letter (Strasbourg Aram. 2 [ TAD A4.5]) was written not in a single vertical column, like the other letters, but in two parallel horizontal columns on the recto and a single vertical column on the verso. An estimated three lines are missing at the top and bottom of each column. Writing to an unknown official, the Jews protested their loyalty at the time of…

An Aramaic Dream Report from Elephantine (3.88)

(1,019 words)

Author(s): Levine, Baruch A. | Robertson, Anne
Subject: Archival Documents from the Biblical World; West Semitic Archival Documents; Miscellaneous Texts; Aramaic Ostraca Commentary This Aramaic ostracon from Elephantine is registered as  CIS 2.137, and has been variously dated as early as the fifth century bce and as late as ca. 300 bce (Fitzmyer and Kaufman 1992:109–110). It was first published by Euting (1887), and has recently received two very different treatments by A. Dupont-Sommer (1948a) and B. A. Levine (1964). See also J. Teixidor (1967:178) and B. Porten (1968:275). It is a…

Withdrawal from Goods (3.65)

(1,282 words)

Author(s): Porten, Bezalel
Subject: Archival Documents from the Biblical World; West Semitic Archival Documents; Letters; Egyptian Aramaic Commentary Mibtahiah (here called Miptahiah) and the Egyptian builder Peu engaged in litigation in Syene regarding silver, grain, clothing, vessels, and a document of wifehood. Mibtahiah won her claim through an oath by the Egyptian goddess Sati and Peu drew up this document of withdrawal, supporting his waiver of all future suit by a standard five karsh penalty. We may conjecture that the dispute in…

The King to Ḥayyaʾil Regarding an Allotment of Logs (RS 16.264) (3.45Q)

(1,601 words)

Contributor(s): Hallo, William W.
Subject: Archival Documents from the Biblical World; West Semitic Archival Documents; Letters; Ugaritic Letters; Between King or Queen and a Non-Royal Personage (17) The King to Ḥayyaʾil Regarding an Allotment of Logs (RS 16.264) (3.45Q) 1 Subject: Gen 6:14; Exod 25:5; 1 Kgs 5:20, 22, 24; 9:11; Ps 22:18 Address (lines 1–3) Message (that) the king spoke: To Ḥayyaʾil:2 Reference to a Previous Letter from Ḥayyaʾil ( lines 4–6) Why do you keep sending me (the following message): “How am I to furnish3 the timbers4  jj for the temple of Damal?”?5 The King’s Decision ( lines 7–21)6 I …

Puduḫepa, Queen of Hatti, to the King of Ugarit (RS 17.434+) (3.45J)

(1,511 words)

Contributor(s): Hallo, William W.
Subject: Archival Documents from the Biblical World; West Semitic Archival Documents; Letters; Ugaritic Letters; Incoming Correspondence From Other Courts (10) Puduḫepa, Queen of Hatti, to the King of Ugarit (RS 17.434+) (3.45J) 1 Subject: 2 Sam 8:6; 1 Kgs 5:1; Exod 25:4 Address (lines 1–2) [Messa]ge of Puduḫepa, [great] quee[n, que]en [of Hatti:] [To] Niqmaddu say: Report of Well-being ( lines 2–4) He[re with] the Su[n and] with the queen, everything [is well]; now the well-being of your land and [of] the house of the king […].2 First Matter: Tribute ( lines 5–13) Concerning the …

Letter Regarding Gift, Handmaiden, Allotment, and Pots (TAD D7.9) (3.87I)

(1,060 words)

Author(s): Porten, Bezalel
Subject: Archival Documents from the Biblical World; West Semitic Archival Documents; Miscellaneous Texts; Aramaic Ostraca Commentary Discovered by Sayce in 1901 and published by Sayce and Cowley in 1906 (Bodleian Aramaic Inscription 1), this palimpsest, dubbed the Uriah Ostracon (Fitzmyer and Kaufman 1992 B.3.C.36), has since disappeared. Though two or three commands are in the plural (wblwh, yktbwh, hwšrwhy), the letter is essentially addressed to a female (hbyh, ḥzy [masculine or feminine], hzdhry, tšmʿyn…

Talmiyānu and ʾAḫātumilki Keep in Touch with an Unnamed Lady (RS 8.315) (3.45C)

(419 words)

Contributor(s): Hallo, William W.
Subject: Archival Documents from the Biblical World; West Semitic Archival Documents; Letters; Ugaritic Letters; Correspondence Between Members of the Royal Family (3) Talmiyānu and ʾAḫātumilki Keep in Touch with an Unnamed Lady (RS 8.315) (3.45C) 1 Address (lines 1–4) To my mother, our lady, say: Message of Talmiyānu and ʾAḫātumilki, your servants:2 Prostration and Greeting Formulae ( lines 5–9) At the feet of our lady (from) afar we fall. May the gods guard you, may they keep you well. Situation Report ( lines 10–14)3 Here with the two of us everything is very fin…

A Barley Loan from Guzāna (3.58)

(572 words)

Author(s): Younger, K. Lawson, Jr.
Subject: Archival Documents from the Biblical World; West Semitic Archival Documents; Contracts; Assyrian Aramaic Commentary This triangular barley loan docket was discovered in excavations at Guzāna (Tell Halaf) (biblical Gozan). It dates to the period after the reign of Assurbanipal. The tablet contains a stamp seal impression which possibly features an incense stand. A Barley Loan from Guzāna (3.58) Subject: Ezek 18:8, 13, 17; 22:12; Prov 28:8 ( Stamp seal on top of tablet) ( lines 1–4) Barley belonging to Il-manāni,1 (debited) against Mattî.2 The in⌜tere⌝st3 is: 2 ( emā…

Unknown, Perhaps the Queen, to Unknown (RS 94.2592) (3.45AA)

(230 words)

Contributor(s): Hallo, William W.
Subject: Archival Documents from the Biblical World; West Semitic Archival Documents; Letters; Ugaritic Letters; Between King or Queen and a Non-Royal Personage (27) Unknown, Perhaps the Queen, to Unknown (RS 94.2592) (3.45AA) 1 Subject: Ezra 5:4, 10 The Request for Particulars on the bnšm -Personnel (lines 3´-14´) And I, for my part, I do not know who all the servants are who work there. So you, put (the names of) all the servants who work there in a document and have it delivered to me. qq I know what I will do with regard to these (servants). So, as for (every) worker, wh…

Sale of Apartment to Son-in-Law (3.80)

(3,158 words)

Author(s): Porten, Bezalel
Subject: Archival Documents from the Biblical World; West Semitic Archival Documents; Letters; Egyptian Aramaic Commentary Barely nine months after Anani’s final bequest to his daughter Jehoishma, he and his wife sold their remaining share in the house (the large room plus appurtenances [1511/3 square cubits]) to their son-in-law Anani son of Haggai for thirteen shekels (also denominated in Ionian staters), a price that took into account the father’s building improvements. The document was remarkable for the f…
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