North Africa and the Sudan circa 1008 / 1600
(183 words)

is based on map 41 in the First Edition with additional material on Ottoman administrative geography from Pitcher, Ottoman Empire. Recent work on African history is summarized in F. D. Fage and R. A. Oliver (eds.), Cambridge History ofAfrica (1975-8).

From the latest excavations it is evident that Old Jenne was smelting iron already in the thirdcentury B.C., and by the ninth century A.D. had grown into a great city at the head of the inland delta of the Niger. Gold, slaves and kola nuts (a permitted stimulant) were brought together h…

Cite this page
Kennedy, Hugh, “North Africa and the Sudan circa 1008 / 1600”, in: Historical Atlas of Islam, Edited by: Hugh Kennedy. Consulted online on 16 December 2017 <http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/1573-3912_hai_HAI_58>
First published online: 2012
First print edition: ISBN: 9789004122352, 20011210



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