Makka and al-Madīna
(68 words)

The outlines are modern and precise. The best of the older published plans are those of Eldon Rutter, The Holy Cities of Arabia, 1928: these are copied, without acknowledgement, in the Naval Intelligence Division’s Western Arabia and the Red Sea, Geographical Handbook Series 1945, 558, 562; they are recognisable but not accurate.

Cite this page
Kennedy, Hugh, “Makka and al-Madīna”, in: Historical Atlas of Islam, Edited by: Hugh Kennedy. Consulted online on 16 December 2017 <>
First published online: 2012
First print edition: ISBN: 9789004122352, 20011210

▲   Back to top   ▲