(1,636 words)

1. Traditions

The very ancient belief in the existence and work of (good or evil) angels (from Gk ángelos, “[divine] messenger”) is taken for granted in Christianity and Islam. On into the 18th century it took its lead from the biblical narratives of angels as divine messengers and interpreters; on divine instructions they give advice to human beings and protect them from adversarial powers. Individual…

Cite this page
Lang, Bernhard, “Angel”, in: Encyclopedia of Early Modern History Online, Executive editor of the English edition: Graeme Dunphy. Consulted online on 17 January 2018 <>
First published online: 2015
First print edition: 20160321

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