Encyclopaedia of Islam, THREE

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Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies

Edited by Kate Fleet, Gudrun Krämer, Denis Matringe, John Nawas and Everett Rowson with a team of more than 20 section editors.

EI-Three is the third edition of Brill’s Encyclopaedia of Islam which sets out the present state of our knowledge of the Islamic World. It is a unique and invaluable reference tool, an essential key to understanding the world of Islam, and the authoritative source not only for the religion, but also for the believers and the countries in which they live.

The Third Edition of the Encyclopaedia of Islam is an entirely new work, with new articles reflecting the great diversity of current scholarship. It is published in five substantial segments each year, both online and in print. The new scope includes comprehensive coverage of Islam in the twentieth century and of Muslim minorities all over the world.

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Ḥabāʾib in Southeast Asia

(1,820 words)

Author(s): Alatas, Ismail Fajrie
Ḥabāʾib (Ar. sing. ḥabīb; Indonesian sing. habib), which literally means the “beloveds,” is an honorific used to address and refer to the descendants of the Prophet Muḥammad ( sāda) in the Ḥaḍramawt valley of southern Arabia, Southeast Asia, and the Swahili coast of East Africa. In particular, the term is used to refer to the Bā ʿAlawī (Children of ʿAlawī), that is, a sāda lineage that traces its descent to ʿAlawī b. ʿUbaydallāh (d. at the beginning of the fifth/eleventh century), whose grandfather, Aḥmad b. ʿĪsā (d. 345/956) is said to have first migrated …
Date: 2018-05-15

Ḥabash al-Ḥāsib al-Marwazī

(1,661 words)

Author(s): Samsó, Julio
Abū Jaʿfar Aḥmad b. ʿAbdallāh Ḥabash al-Ḥāsib al-Marwazī (fl. third/ninth century) was a brilliant mathematician (the name al-Ḥāsib means “the calculator”) and astronomer active during the period of the great blossoming of the sciences under the patronage of the ʿAbbāsids. Born in Merv, he lived in Baghdad, Damascus, and Samarrāʾ (sometime after the founding of the city in 221/836) during the reigns of the ʿAbbāsid caliphs al-Maʾmūn (198–218/813–33) and al-Muʿtaṣim (218–27/833–42). According to Ibn al-Nadīm ( al-Fihrist, 275), he lived to an age of more than a hundred, …
Date: 2018-05-15

Ḥabīballāh Khān

(1,339 words)

Author(s): Nölle-Karimi, Christine
Ḥabīballāh (Ḥabībullāh) Khān (1872–1919) was son of the amīr ʿAbd al-Raḥmān (r. 1880–1901) and a slave girl from the court of Jahāndār Shāh, the mīr (amīr) of Badakhshān (r. 1864–9). He succeeded ʿAbd al-Raḥmān and ruled Afghanistan from 3 October 1901 to 20 February 1919, when he was assassinated at Kalla-gūsh, in Laghmān. Ḥabīballāh Khān inherited a functioning administrative and military system. His first official communications indicated the young amīr’s intention to continue the isolationist policies of his father: In order to shield his country from foreign…
Date: 2018-05-15

Ḥabīb b. Maslama al-Fihrī

(1,272 words)

Author(s): Lecker, Michael
Ḥabīb b. Maslama al-Fihrī, a brilliant general and close ally of the caliph Muʿāwiya, belonged to the Quraysh tribe, more precisely, to the Muḥārib b. Fihr branch of Quraysh. He played a major role in the conquest of the Jazīra and Armenia. His raids on Byzantine territory earned him the nickname Ḥabīb al-Rūm, “Ḥabīb of the Byzantines,” which can also be understood, ironically, as “the beloved one of the Byzantines.” The agreements of capitulation that he concluded with the people of Tiflīs (Tbilis…
Date: 2018-05-15


(726 words)

Author(s): Procházka-Eisl, Gisela
Habsi (Ḥabsī)/Hasbi (Ḥasbī), Gedizli or Geduzi (Gedūzī, “of Geduz”) was a pen name of an Ottoman poet (d. after 960/1553) whose real name, date of birth, and year of death are unknown. He was born in Geduz (Gediz), in the principality of Germiyan (Kütahya), where he received his medrese (madrasa) education. After moving to Istanbul, where his elder brother, the better-known poet Keşfi (Keşfī), had been living for years, he first wrote poems under the pen name Habsi. The available biographical data introduce him as a tragic figure. Spending muc…
Date: 2018-05-15

Ḥaddād, Fuʾād

(626 words)

Author(s): Radwan, Noha
Fuʾād Ḥaddād (1927–85) was a poet who wrote in colloquial Egyptian Arabic. Born in Cairo to a Lebanese father, he was well versed in Classical Arabic and the colloquial traditions and was educated in French. He was instrumental in the birth of shiʿr al-ʿāmmiyya al-miṣriyya, a movement of poetry in the Egyptian colloquial dialect that veered away from the poetics of zajal, a traditional form of colloquial verse, and moved towards that of the contemporaneous modernist Arabic poetry. Ṣalāḥ Jāhīn (d. 1986), another pioneer of shiʿr al-ʿāmmiyya, whose first anthology was published in …
Date: 2018-05-15

Hadice Turhan Sultan

(1,052 words)

Author(s): Thys-Şenocak, Lucienne
Hadice Turhan Sultan (Khadīja ṭurkhān Sulṭān) (d. 10 Şaban (Shaʿbān) 1094/4 August 1683) was the favourite consort, or haseki (khāṣekī), of the Ottoman sultan İbrahim (İbrāhīm) I (r. 1049–58/1640–8) and the mother of Sultan Mehmed (Meḥmed) IV (r. 1058–99/1648–87). There are no records of her early life prior to entering the Ottoman harem, but she was most likely captured during a slave raid into the Russian steppes and entered the harem of Sultan İbrahim in 1049/1640, when she was approximately twelve years old. A…
Date: 2018-05-15


(6,539 words)

Author(s): Pavlovitch, Pavel
Ḥadīth (Ar. lit., speech, narrative, pl. aḥādīth) is the technical term for Muslim Tradition about the exemplary practice of the prophet Muḥammad, enshrined in his words (aqwāl, sing. qawl) and deeds (afʿāl, sing. fiʿl) and his tacit approval (taqrīr) of his Companions’ words and deeds (for a more detailed nomenclature, see al-Ḥākim, Madkhal, 81). Ḥadīth is also each individual tradition about what the Prophet said, did, or tacitly approved. In contrast to the ontological status of the Qurʾān as God’s uncreated (qadīm) speech, ḥadīth—the substantive form of the adjective “new”…
Date: 2018-05-15

Ḥadīth commentary

(3,464 words)

Author(s): Blecher, Joel
Ḥadīth commentary (sharḥ al-ḥadīth, pl. shurūḥ al-ḥadīth, or, more rarely, tafsīr al-ḥadīth or taʾwīl al-ḥadīth) is the practice of interpreting a report or a collection of reports attributed to Muḥammad, his Companions, exemplars amongst the early generations of Muslims, or, for Shīʿīs, the Imāms. Construed broadly, the term could include any formal or informal oral or written gloss on a given ḥadīth. Narrowly defined, the practice of ḥadīth commentary refers to a cumulative and transregional tradition of line-by-line Muslim scholarly exegesis on individual ḥadīth and ḥadīth co…
Date: 2018-05-15

Ḥadīth, Ibāḍism

(2,237 words)

Author(s): Gaiser, Adam R.
Like other Muslims, Ibāḍīs have long employed ḥadīth (in the general sense of what was related about the Prophet and his community) in seeking to understand how Islam should be understood and practised (Wilkinson, Ibāḍism, 126). Up to the sixth/twelfth century, however, Ibāḍīs preserved attitudes towards ḥadīth that, on the one hand, remained closer to earlier Islamic approaches to it, but, on the other hand, increasingly diverged from Sunnī and later Shīʿī norms concerning ḥadīth. Since the sixth/twelfth century, Ibāḍīs have progressively adopted Sunnī standards for ḥadīth. This…
Date: 2018-05-15

Ḥadīth qudsī

(3,643 words)

Author(s): Graham, William A.
Ḥadīth qudsī (plur. aḥādīth qudsiyya, lit., holy tradition; also ḥadīth ilāhī, ḥadīth rabbānī, plur. aḥādīth ilāhiyya/rabbāniyya, lit., divine tradition; khabar, report, plur. akhbār, sometimes used instead of ḥadīth) designates a direct-discourse statement ascribed to God—hence the preferred translation “divine saying”—that is not from the Qurʾān but is reported normally in ḥadīth format, with supporting isnād (chain of transmitters), on the authority of the prophet Muḥammad. A divine saying is distinguished formally from a Qurʾānic revelation and…
Date: 2018-05-15

Hadiyya (Ethiopia)

(673 words)

Author(s): Braukämper, Ulrich
The Hadiyya of Ethiopia was a political entity belonging to the Muslim federation of Adal and inhabiting a large territory in southeastern Ethiopia between the seventh/thirteenth and the tenth/sixteenth centuries. The Hadiyya consisted of Cushitic- and Semitic-speaking ethnic groups who shared several cultural features, such as a strong Islamic influence and an agropastoralist economy. The groups that are presently labelled Hadiyya proper are part of the Highland East Cushitic cluster and are relat…
Date: 2018-05-15

Ḥaḍra in Ṣūfism

(1,050 words)

Author(s): Waugh, Earle H.
Ḥaḍra in Ṣūfism is generally translated as Presence—that is, it is capitalised to indicate the divine locus of the Ṣūfī’s mystical goal. The word also refers to the culminating moment in the sacred conclave of the Ṣūfī order (Ar. ṭarīqa, lit., way), in which the devotees go through a transcending experience. Meanings associated with the word therefore range from the theological implications of the mystical encounter to the socially cohesive experience of attending to spiritual realities with other like-minded seekers. It was given it…
Date: 2018-05-15

Ḥaḍramī diaspora in Southeast Asia

(1,105 words)

Author(s): Abushouk, Ahmed Ibrahim
Members of the Arab Ḥaḍramī diaspora in Southeast Asia, particularly those who settled in the Malay world, originally migrated from Ḥaḍramawt in southern Yemen, where they were influenced by push factors such as poverty, drought, and political disturbance, and pull factors, such as trading opportunities and Islamic missionary work in Southeast Asia. Their settlement and incorporation into and coexistence with new host societies occurred during three historical periods, the pre-colonial, colonial, and po…
Date: 2018-05-15

al-Ḥāfiẓ li-Dīn Allāh

(979 words)

Author(s): Walker, Paul E.
Al-Ḥāfiẓ li-Dīn Allāh, Abū l-Maymūn ʿAbd al-Majīd, was the eleventh caliph of the Fāṭimid line (r. 297–567/909–1171). Born in ʿAsqalān in 467/1074 or 468/1075 to a son of the caliph al-Mustanṣir (r. 427–87/1036–94), he was the oldest surviving male in the royal family in 524/1130, when his cousin and predecessor, al-Āmir, was assassinated. Absent a clear heir to the throne—the infant son al-Ṭayyib, whose birth had been announced earlier, seems to have left the picture—authorities in the palace dec…
Date: 2018-05-15

Hafız Post

(504 words)

Author(s): Wright, Owen
Hafız (Ḥāfıẓ) Post was the nickname of the Istanbul musician and composer Mehmed (Meḥmed, 1040?–1101/1630?-90). He was also a poet and noted calligrapher, but is renowned above all for his musical achievements, and has the reputation of being, after Itri (ʿIṭrī, d. 1123/1712), the most significant Ottoman composer of the second half of the eleventh/seventeenth century. He was a distinguished performer on the tanbur ( ṭanbūr, a long-necked lute) and a singer, and although not a court musician, he was a major musical figure during the reign of Mehmed (Meḥmed) I…
Date: 2018-05-15

Hafsa Sultan

(449 words)

Author(s): Peirce, Leslie P.
Ayşe Hafsa Sultan (ʿĀʾisha Ḥafṣa Sulṭān) (d. 940/1534) was the concubine of Selim (Selīm) I (r. 918–26/1512–20), mother of his only surviving son, Süleyman (Süleymān) I (r. 926–74/1520–66), and probably also of one or more of his daughters. Often alleged to have been a princess of the Crimean Giray dynasty, Hafsa was, in fact, a slave recruit like other royal mothers from the mid-ninth/fifteenth century onwards. Hafsa spent her life at Süleyman’s side, first in Trabzon (on the Black Sea), Selim’s …
Date: 2018-05-15

Ḥafṣ al-Fard

(1,275 words)

Author(s): Kulinich, Alena
Abū ʿAmr or Abū Yaḥyā Ḥafṣ al-Fard (fl. c. 200/815) was a prominent theologian; a disciple of Ḍirār b. ʿAmr (d. c.200/815), he was traditionally counted among the Mujbira (Determinists). Little is known of Ḥafṣ al-Fard’s life. His full name is unknown and it is not certain whether he was a native of Egypt (min ahl Miṣr), whence he came to Basra, as related by Ibn al-Nadīm (229), or if he migrated to Egypt (dakhala ilā Miṣr) in the generation of the jurist (faqīh) Ibn ʿUlayya (d. 218/832), as mentioned by Ibn al-Zayyāt (167; van Ess, 2:729). Ḥafṣ al-Fard studied in Iraq. Although he is liste…
Date: 2018-05-15


(986 words)

Author(s): Tottoli, Roberto
Hagar (Ar. Hājar) was the Egyptian servant girl of Abraham (Ar. Ibrāhīm) who gave birth to Ishmael (Ar., Ismāʿīl). Although the Qurʾān makes no reference to her, later traditions mention Hagar by her name or as the “Mother of Ishmael” (Umm Ismāʿīl), or in a general connection with Ishmael. According to the Islamic narratives, Hagar was given as a gift by the king of Egypt, and Sarah allowed Abraham to take Hagar (al-Thaʿlabī, 79–80). After the birth of Ishmael, however, Sarah became jealous and …
Date: 2018-05-15


(2,473 words)

Author(s): Morris, Ian D.
Ḥājib (pl. ḥujjāb) is a courtly and military title that was in use in many Islamicate societies from the first/seventh to the fourteenth/twentieth century. Although routinely translated as “chamberlain,” the title was applied at different times to doorkeepers, military officers, governors, prime ministers, and petty kings. When ḥājibs were many and served different institutions, their chiefs were distinguished by inflated titles: ḥājib al-ḥujjāb, al-ḥājib al-kabīr, ḥājib-i buzurg, ulugh ḥājib, amīr ḥājib, and so on. Sometimes ḥājibs had compound titles to reflect speci…
Date: 2018-05-15
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