Encyclopaedia of Islam, THREE

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Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies

Edited by Kate Fleet, Gudrun Krämer, Denis Matringe, John Nawas and Everett Rowson with a team of more than 20 section editors.

EI-Three is the third edition of Brill’s Encyclopaedia of Islam which sets out the present state of our knowledge of the Islamic World. It is a unique and invaluable reference tool, an essential key to understanding the world of Islam, and the authoritative source not only for the religion, but also for the believers and the countries in which they live.

The Third Edition of the Encyclopaedia of Islam is an entirely new work, with new articles reflecting the great diversity of current scholarship. It is published in five substantial segments each year, both online and in print. The new scope includes comprehensive coverage of Islam in the twentieth century and of Muslim minorities all over the world.



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Ḥabash al-Ḥāsib al-Marwazī

(1,661 words)

Author(s): Samsó, Julio
Abū Jaʿfar Aḥmad b. ʿAbdallāh Ḥabash al-Ḥāsib al-Marwazī (fl. third/ninth century) was a brilliant mathematician (the name al-Ḥāsib means “the calculator”) and astronomer active during the period of the great blossoming of the sciences under the patronage of the ʿAbbāsids. Born in Merv, he lived in Baghdad, Damascus, and Samarrāʾ (sometime after the founding of the city in 221/836) during the reigns of the ʿAbbāsid caliphs al-Maʾmūn (198–218/813–33) and al-Muʿtaṣim (218–27/833–42). According to Ibn al-Nadīm ( al-Fihrist, 275), he lived to an age of more than a hundred, …
Date: 2017-08-07

Ḥabīballāh Khān

(1,339 words)

Author(s): Nölle-Karimi, Christine
Ḥabīballāh (Ḥabībullāh) Khān (1872–1919) was son of the amīr ʿAbd al-Raḥmān (r. 1880–1901) and a slave girl from the court of Jahāndār Shāh, the mīr (amīr) of Badakhshān (r. 1864–9). He succeeded ʿAbd al-Raḥmān and ruled Afghanistan from 3 October 1901 to 20 February 1919, when he was assassinated at Kalla-gūsh, in Laghmān. Ḥabīballāh Khān inherited a functioning administrative and military system. His first official communications indicated the young amīr’s intention to continue the isolationist policies of his father: In order to shield his country from foreign…
Date: 2017-08-07

Ḥabīb b. Maslama al-Fihrī

(1,272 words)

Author(s): Lecker, Michael
Ḥabīb b. Maslama al-Fihrī, a brilliant general and close ally of the caliph Muʿāwiya, belonged to the Quraysh tribe, more precisely, to the Muḥārib b. Fihr branch of Quraysh. He played a major role in the conquest of the Jazīra and Armenia. His raids on Byzantine territory earned him the nickname Ḥabīb al-Rūm, “Ḥabīb of the Byzantines,” which can also be understood, ironically, as “the beloved one of the Byzantines.” The agreements of capitulation that he concluded with the people of Tiflīs (Tbilis…
Date: 2017-08-07

Habsi

(726 words)

Author(s): Procházka-Eisl, Gisela
Habsi (Ḥabsī)/Hasbi (Ḥasbī), Gedizli or Geduzi (Gedūzī, “of Geduz”) was a pen name of an Ottoman poet (d. after 960/1553) whose real name, date of birth, and year of death are unknown. He was born in Geduz (Gediz), in the principality of Germiyan (Kütahya), where he received his medrese (madrasa) education. After moving to Istanbul, where his elder brother, the better-known poet Keşfi (Keşfī), had been living for years, he first wrote poems under the pen name Habsi. The available biographical data introduce him as a tragic figure. Spending muc…
Date: 2017-08-07

Ḥaddād, Fuʾād

(626 words)

Author(s): Radwan, Noha
Fuʾād Ḥaddād (1927–85) was a poet who wrote in colloquial Egyptian Arabic. Born in Cairo to a Lebanese father, he was well versed in Classical Arabic and the colloquial traditions and was educated in French. He was instrumental in the birth of shiʿr al-ʿāmmiyya al-miṣriyya, a movement of poetry in the Egyptian colloquial dialect that veered away from the poetics of zajal, a traditional form of colloquial verse, and moved towards that of the contemporaneous modernist Arabic poetry. Ṣalāḥ Jāhīn (d. 1986), another pioneer of shiʿr al-ʿāmmiyya, whose first anthology was published in …
Date: 2017-08-07

Hadice Turhan Sultan

(1,052 words)

Author(s): Thys-Şenocak, Lucienne
Hadice Turhan Sultan (Khadīja ṭurkhān Sulṭān) (d. 10 Şaban (Shaʿbān) 1094/4 August 1683) was the favourite consort, or haseki (khāṣekī), of the Ottoman sultan İbrahim (İbrāhīm) I (r. 1049–58/1640–8) and the mother of Sultan Mehmed (Meḥmed) IV (r. 1058–99/1648–87). There are no records of her early life prior to entering the Ottoman harem, but she was most likely captured during a slave raid into the Russian steppes and entered the harem of Sultan İbrahim in 1049/1640, when she was approximately twelve years old. A…
Date: 2017-08-07

Ḥadīth, Ibāḍism

(2,237 words)

Author(s): Gaiser, Adam R.
Like other Muslims, Ibāḍīs have long employed ḥadīth (in the general sense of what was related about the Prophet and his community) in seeking to understand how Islam should be understood and practised (Wilkinson, Ibāḍism, 126). Up to the sixth/twelfth century, however, Ibāḍīs preserved attitudes towards ḥadīth that, on the one hand, remained closer to earlier Islamic approaches to it, but, on the other hand, increasingly diverged from Sunnī and later Shīʿī norms concerning ḥadīth. Since the sixth/twelfth century, Ibāḍīs have progressively adopted Sunnī standards for ḥadīth. This…
Date: 2017-08-07

Ḥadīth qudsī

(3,643 words)

Author(s): Graham, William A.
Ḥadīth qudsī (plur. aḥādīth qudsiyya, lit., holy tradition; also ḥadīth ilāhī, ḥadīth rabbānī, plur. aḥādīth ilāhiyya/rabbāniyya, lit., divine tradition; khabar, report, plur. akhbār, sometimes used instead of ḥadīth) designates a direct-discourse statement ascribed to God—hence the preferred translation “divine saying”—that is not from the Qurʾān but is reported normally in ḥadīth format, with supporting isnād (chain of transmitters), on the authority of the prophet Muḥammad. A divine saying is distinguished formally from a Qurʾānic revelation and…
Date: 2017-08-07

Hadiyya (Ethiopia)

(673 words)

Author(s): Braukämper, Ulrich
The Hadiyya of Ethiopia was a political entity belonging to the Muslim federation of Adal and inhabiting a large territory in southeastern Ethiopia between the seventh/thirteenth and the tenth/sixteenth centuries. The Hadiyya consisted of Cushitic- and Semitic-speaking ethnic groups who shared several cultural features, such as a strong Islamic influence and an agropastoralist economy. The groups that are presently labelled Hadiyya proper are part of the Highland East Cushitic cluster and are relat…
Date: 2017-08-07

Ḥaḍra in Ṣūfism

(1,050 words)

Author(s): Waugh, Earle H.
Ḥaḍra in Ṣūfism is generally translated as Presence—that is, it is capitalised to indicate the divine locus of the Ṣūfī’s mystical goal. The word also refers to the culminating moment in the sacred conclave of the Ṣūfī order (Ar. ṭarīqa, lit., way), in which the devotees go through a transcending experience. Meanings associated with the word therefore range from the theological implications of the mystical encounter to the socially cohesive experience of attending to spiritual realities with other like-minded seekers. It was given it…
Date: 2017-08-07

al-Ḥāfiẓ li-Dīn Allāh

(979 words)

Author(s): Walker, Paul E.
Al-Ḥāfiẓ li-Dīn Allāh, Abū l-Maymūn ʿAbd al-Majīd, was the eleventh caliph of the Fāṭimid line (r. 297–567/909–1171). Born in ʿAsqalān in 467/1074 or 468/1075 to a son of the caliph al-Mustanṣir (r. 427–87/1036–94), he was the oldest surviving male in the royal family in 524/1130, when his cousin and predecessor, al-Āmir, was assassinated. Absent a clear heir to the throne—the infant son al-Ṭayyib, whose birth had been announced earlier, seems to have left the picture—authorities in the palace dec…
Date: 2017-08-07

Hafız Post

(504 words)

Author(s): Wright, Owen
Hafız (Ḥāfıẓ) Post was the nickname of the Istanbul musician and composer Mehmed (Meḥmed, 1040?–1101/1630?-90). He was also a poet and noted calligrapher, but is renowned above all for his musical achievements, and has the reputation of being, after Itri (ʿIṭrī, d. 1123/1712), the most significant Ottoman composer of the second half of the eleventh/seventeenth century. He was a distinguished performer on the tanbur ( ṭanbūr, a long-necked lute) and a singer, and although not a court musician, he was a major musical figure during the reign of Mehmed (Meḥmed) I…
Date: 2017-08-07

Hafsa Sultan

(449 words)

Author(s): Peirce, Leslie P.
Ayşe Hafsa Sultan (ʿĀʾisha Ḥafṣa Sulṭān) (d. 940/1534) was the concubine of Selim (Selīm) I (r. 918–26/1512–20), mother of his only surviving son, Süleyman (Süleymān) I (r. 926–74/1520–66), and probably also of one or more of his daughters. Often alleged to have been a princess of the Crimean Giray dynasty, Hafsa was, in fact, a slave recruit like other royal mothers from the mid-ninth/fifteenth century onwards. Hafsa spent her life at Süleyman’s side, first in Trabzon (on the Black Sea), Selim’s …
Date: 2017-06-22

Ḥafṣ al-Fard

(1,275 words)

Author(s): Kulinich, Alena
Abū ʿAmr or Abū Yaḥyā Ḥafṣ al-Fard (fl. c. 200/815) was a prominent theologian; a disciple of Ḍirār b. ʿAmr (d. c.200/815), he was traditionally counted among the Mujbira (Determinists). Little is known of Ḥafṣ al-Fard’s life. His full name is unknown and it is not certain whether he was a native of Egypt (min ahl Miṣr), whence he came to Basra, as related by Ibn al-Nadīm (229), or if he migrated to Egypt (dakhala ilā Miṣr) in the generation of the jurist (faqīh) Ibn ʿUlayya (d. 218/832), as mentioned by Ibn al-Zayyāt (167; van Ess, 2:729). Ḥafṣ al-Fard studied in Iraq. Although he is liste…
Date: 2017-08-07

Hagar

(986 words)

Author(s): Tottoli, Roberto
Hagar (Ar. Hājar) was the Egyptian servant girl of Abraham (Ar. Ibrāhīm) who gave birth to Ishmael (Ar., Ismāʿīl). Although the Qurʾān makes no reference to her, later traditions mention Hagar by her name or as the “Mother of Ishmael” (Umm Ismāʿīl), or in a general connection with Ishmael. According to the Islamic narratives, Hagar was given as a gift by the king of Egypt, and Sarah allowed Abraham to take Hagar (al-Thaʿlabī, 79–80). After the birth of Ishmael, however, Sarah became jealous and …
Date: 2017-08-07

Haji, Sultan

(820 words)

Author(s): Ota, Atsushi
Sultan Haji, also known as Sultan Abul Nazar Abdul Kahar (r. as co-ruler with his father from 1676, then as sole ruler 1680–7), was the seventh ruler of the Sultanate of Banten, West Java. He was the oldest legitimate son of Sultan Abulfath Abdul Fattah, later known as Sultan Ageng Tirtayasa (c.1625–95, r. 1651–82). From the time of his youth, Abul Nazar strongly embraced Islam. He studied with Yusuf al-Maqassari (also known as Yusuf Taj al-Khalwati, d. 1699), a respected Islamic scholar from Mak…
Date: 2017-08-07

al-Ḥajjāj b. Yūsuf b. Maṭar

(921 words)

Author(s): De Young, Gregg | Brentjes, Sonja
Al-Ḥajjāj b. Yūsuf b. Maṭar (fl. 169–218/786–833) was reportedly the first person to translate Euclid’s Elements and Ptolemy’s Almagest into Arabic. Nothing is known of his personal life. The Arabic translation of the Almagest, ascribed to both al-Ḥajjāj and Elias, son of Sergius, is extant. When compared with the later Arabic version attributed to Isḥāq b. Ḥunayn (d. 297/910), the differences between the two versions suggest that they are independent translations. Arabic sources report that al-Ḥajjāj translated the Elements at the request of the caliph Hārūn al-Rashīd (r…
Date: 2017-08-07

Ḥājjī l-Dabīr

(564 words)

Author(s): Balachandran, Jyoti Gulati
ʿAbdallāh Muḥammad al-Makkī al-Āṣafī Ulughkhānī, called also Ḥājjī l-Dabīr (b. 946/1539–40), wrote an Arabic history of Gujarat titled Ẓafar al-wālih bi-Muẓaffar wa-ālihi (“The excellent victories of Muẓaffar and his family”). The exact date of his death is unknown, but his text indicates that he was still alive in the third decade of the eleventh century/second decade of the seventeenth century. Most of our biographical information on Ḥājjī l-Dabīr comes only from his text. Ḥājjī l-Dabīr was born in Mecca to Sirāj …
Date: 2017-08-07

Ḥājjī Pasha

(1,077 words)

Author(s): Shefer-Mossensohn, Miri
Ḥājjī Pasha (Turk. Hacı Paşa, d. 810s/1410s or early 820s/1420s) was an Anatolian religious scholar and physician, known in Arabic-language sources as Ḥājjī Bāshā Jalāl al-Dīn al-Khiḍr b. ʿAlī b. al-Khaṭṭāb al-Aydīnī. He travelled to Cairo to study Islamic subjects, because Anatolia was, at that time, not yet important in religious learning. In Cairo, Ḥājjī Pasha met not only with local teachers but also with other Anatolian luminaries, such as Mullā Shams al-Dīn Fanārī (d. 834/1431), who would later become an important early …
Date: 2017-08-07

al-Ḥājj, Unsī

(947 words)

Author(s): Badini, Dounia Abourachid
Unsī al-Ḥājj (1937–2014) was a Lebanese poet, journalist, literary critic, and translator, who was recognised as the pioneer of the Arabic prose poem (qaṣīdat al-nathr). He was a pillar of the modernist magazine Shiʿr (“Poetry,” 1957–70). He was born in Beirut on 27 July 1937 and attended the Carmelite and Franciscan schools, the Lycée Français, and Madrasat al-Ḥikma. His mother died when he was seven. His father, Louis al-Ḥājj (from the village of Qaytūlī, in Jazzīn district), was editor-in-chief of al-Nahār newspaper and managing editor of the magazine Ṣawt al-ajyāl, later renamed al…
Date: 2017-08-07
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