Encyclopaedia of Islam, THREE

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Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies

Edited by Kate Fleet, Gudrun Krämer, Denis Matringe, John Nawas and Everett Rowson with a team of more than 20 section editors.

EI-Three is the third edition of Brill’s Encyclopaedia of Islam which sets out the present state of our knowledge of the Islamic World. It is a unique and invaluable reference tool, an essential key to understanding the world of Islam, and the authoritative source not only for the religion, but also for the believers and the countries in which they live.

The Third Edition of the Encyclopaedia of Islam is an entirely new work, with new articles reflecting the great diversity of current scholarship. It is published in five substantial segments each year, both online and in print. The new scope includes comprehensive coverage of Islam in the twentieth century and of Muslim minorities all over the world.



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Fable

(3,634 words)

Author(s): Marzolph, Ulrich
A fable is a short and often humorous tale in which non-human characters (often animals, but also plants or supernatural creatures; rarely human beings) act and speak as human beings in order to exemplify a simple common truth in a metaphorical manner. 1. Introduction In international comparative literature studies, the fable as a literary genre has largely been defined against the backdrop of its Graeco-Roman history (Wienert; Rodríguez Adrados) and its further development in the European Middle Ages and Enlightenment periods (Dicke and …
Date: 2017-08-07

Faḍal Shāh

(763 words)

Author(s): Shackle, Christopher
Faḍal Shāh (1828–90) was born in Nawāṇkot’—then a village about two kilometres south of Lahore—into a Sayyid family with a tradition of learning but of reduced material circumstances. He lived his entire life in Nawāṇkot’, where he was employed as a clerk in the finance department of the Panjāb government. Faḍal Shāh’s successful career as a Panjābī poet, launched at an early age, was facilitated by the concurrent development of Lahore as a major publishing centre, following the British conquest of Panjāb in the 1840s. His first published works include Bārāṇ māh (“The twelve months”),…
Date: 2017-08-07

al-Fāḍil al-Hindī, Bahāʾ al-Dīn Muḥammad b. al-Ḥasan al-Iṣfahānī

(754 words)

Author(s): Abisaab, Rula J.
Bahāʾ al-Dīn Muḥammad b. al-Ḥasan al-Iṣfahānī (d. 1137/1724–5), known as al-Fāḍil al-Hindī, was an Uṣūlī (rationalist) Twelver Shīʿī jurist or mujtahid known for his vast and authoritative legal knowledge. He lived during a time when rationalists were under attack by the Akhbārī (traditionist) jurists who dominated Ṣafavid Isfahan. It is reported that he completed the study of the manqūlāt (transmitted—i.e., scriptural—Islamic sciences) and the maʿqūlāt (rational sciences) by the age of thirteen. He spent part of his childhood and early adulthood in India, w…
Date: 2017-08-07

Faḍl

(715 words)

Author(s): Gordon, Matthew S.
Faḍl (d. c. 257/871) was an ʿAbbāsid-era poet and courtesan. Typically referred to as Faḍl al-Shāʿira (“the Poetess”), she belonged to a select group of elite female performers—poets, singers, musicians, and dancers—of slave background, trained in the appropriate social and literary arts and linked closely to the highest circles of imperial court society. The key source on the early ʿAbbāsid courtesans is Abū l-Faraj al-Iṣfahānī’s Kitāb al-aghānī; it contains a section on Faḍl’s repertoire and career and another on her relationships with Saʿīd b. Ḥumayd (d. af…
Date: 2017-08-07

Faḍlallāh al-Burhānpūrī

(1,074 words)

Author(s): Johns, Anthony H.
Muḥammad b. Faḍlallāh al-Burhānpūrī (firstly known as al-Jawnpūrī) (c. 952–1029/1545–1620) was one of several mystics from north India who studied and taught in Mecca and Medina during the second half of the tenth/sixteenth century. He is mentioned in various biographical dictionaries, some in print, others only in manuscript, among them Nuzhat al-khawāṭir (“The delight of thoughts”) and Khulāṣat al-āthār (“The essence of the Traditions”); in the former, he is said to be a descendant of Abū Bakr. He was raised in Jawnpur (a centre of mystical learning), but the nisba by which he is …
Date: 2017-08-07

al-Faḍl b. al-Ḥubāb

(954 words)

Author(s): Mourad, Suleiman A.
Abū Khalīfa al-Faḍl b. al-Ḥubāb b. Muḥammad b. Shuʿayb al-Jumaḥī (206–305/821–917) was a well-known ḥadīth scholar and littérateur from Basra. He was renowned for his sense of humour and self-deprecation, and his company was often sought by governors and scholars, especially over meals. He loved poetry and is frequently cited in mediaeval books as having recited or transmitted many lines of poetry by pre-Islamic and early Islamic poets. He also developed and was known for speaking in rhymed prose (sajaʿ). According to some sources, al-Faḍl b. al-Ḥubāb was blind, but he pro…
Date: 2017-08-07

al-Faḍl b. Marwān

(615 words)

Author(s): Gordon, Matthew S.
Al-Faḍl b. Marwān (b. c. 160/777, d. 250/864) was an ʿAbbāsid courtier and diplomat. Dominique Sourdel has assessed the information available in the Arabic sources: the central references are found in al-Ṭabarī’s Taʾrīkh, with further details provided by the Taʾrīkh of al-Yaʿqūbī and other historiographic works and by select adab texts, notably al-Tanūkhī’s Nishwār al-muḥādara, the source of key remarks. Al-Faḍl’s career is to be set against the backdrop of two interrelated developments: the expansion of the ʿAbbāsid imperial state, in which the employme…
Date: 2017-08-07

al-Faḍl b. al-Rabīʿ

(644 words)

Author(s): Turner, John P.
Al-Faḍl b. al-Rabīʿ (b. 138/757–8) was a prominent and skilled court intriguer during the reigns of the caliphs al-Hādī (169–70/785–6), al-Rashīd (170–93/786–809), and al-Amīn (193–8/809–13). He held the position of ḥājib (chamberlain) and thus exercised considerable control over access to the caliph and the caliph’s access to information. He also acted as wazīr for al-Amīn. He rose to power under the auspices of his father, who had been ḥājib before him. His father is reported to have risen from humble circumstances to great power. Al-Faḍl was well positioned w…
Date: 2017-08-07

al-Faḍl b. Sahl

(1,620 words)

Author(s): Yücesoy, Hayrettin
Al-Faḍl b. Sahl b. Zādhānfarrūkh (b. c. 154/771, d. 202/817–8) was an important ʿAbbāsid administrator ( kātib, wazīr, and amīr). He served as mentor to ʿAbdallāh al-Maʾmūn, the son of the caliph Hārūn al-Rashīd (r. 170–93/786–809), and then as al-Maʾmūn’s advisor, secretary, governor general in the east, and head of his civil and military administration (al-Maʾmūn was to reign as caliph 198–218/813–33). Because al-Faḍl’s brother, al-Ḥasan b. Sahl (d. 236/850–1), worked for al-Maʾmūn in Baghdad since the fourth ci…
Date: 2017-08-07

al-Faḍl b. Shādhān al-Naysābūrī

(1,425 words)

Author(s): Bayhom-Daou, Tamima
Al-Faḍl b. Shādhān b. Khalīl al-Azdī al-Naysābūrī, Abū Muḥammad (d. 260/ 873–4), a traditionist, jurisprudent, and theologian, is regarded in the Imāmī Shīʿī tradition as one of the leading Imāmī scholars of his time. Nothing certain is known about his early life. His name suggests that his origins were in Nīshāpūr and that he was of Arab stock, from the tribe of Azd. He appears to have travelled as a young man with his father to Baghdad, where, according to a report from him, he studied Qurʾān recitation and then moved to Kufa, where he studied ḥadīth with al-Ḥasan b. ʿAlī b. Faḍḍāl (d. 2…
Date: 2017-08-07

Faḍl-i Ḥaqq Khayrābādī

(1,319 words)

Author(s): Malik, Jamal
Faḍl-i Ḥaqq Khayrābādī (1797–1861) belonged to the functional elite in British India, hailing from Khairabad (Khayrābād), a famous qaṣba (garrison town) in Awadh, about eighty kilometres northwest of Lucknow, the residence of many public officers in the British service. Khairabad was attractive for the elite’s investment because of its many Hindu temples, mosques, shrines, markets, and manufacturers, but, after the 1857 revolt was crushed, it became the objective of colonial encroachment (on Khairabad, see Husain 1979; Khayrābādī, Dār al-khayr; ʿAllāmī, 2:93, 176, 278; Ne…
Date: 2017-08-07

Faḍl-i Imām Khayrābādī

(1,004 words)

Author(s): Ahmed, Asad Q.
Faḍl-i Imām b. Muḥammad Arshad b. Muḥammad Ṣāliḥ b. ʿAbd al-Wājid al-Ḥanafī Khayrābādī (d. 1827–8) was a leading scholar of the rationalist disciplines (maʿqūlāt), such as philosophy, logic, and philosophical theology, in late-twelfth/eighteenth and early-thirteenth/nineteenth-century India. In the immediately preceding generations, his family traced itself to Hargām, in North India, though Khayrābādī himself was born and raised in the town of Khayrābād, in Uttar Pradesh, India. There he was trained by the scholar ʿAb…
Date: 2017-08-07

Faḍlī Namangānī

(648 words)

Author(s): Kleinmichel, Sigrid
Faḍlī (Fażlī) Namangānī (also Faḍlī/Fażlī Farghānī) was the pen name of ʿAbd al-Karīm Namangānī, a poet and historian who lived in the second half of the twelfth/eighteenth century and the first half of the nineteenth, in Namangān and Khoqand, in present-day Uzbekistan. In Khoqand he belonged to the literary circle around ʿUmar Khān (r. 1810–22), where he was given the title of malik al-shuʿarā (poet laureate). In 1821, on the khān’s behalf, he wrote Majmūʿa-yi shuʿarā (“Collection of poets”; other versions bear the titles Majmūʿa-yi shāʿirān, Majmūʿa-yi shuʿarā-yi Faḍlī, and Majmūʿa…
Date: 2017-08-07

Fahri

(502 words)

Author(s): Flemming, Barbara
Fahri (Fakhrī), whose full name was Fahreddin Yakub b. Muhammed (Fakhreddīn Yaʿqūb b. Muḥammed) was born in the Turkish emirate of Aydın, on the Aegean coast. He was court poet to Fahreddin İsa Bey (Fakhreddīn ʿĪsā Beg), the reigning Aydınoğlu (Aydınoghlu), who favoured him with the right to derive his pen name from his own honorific. İsa Bey was interested in Arabic and Persian and commissioned Fahri to compose for himself and his courtiers a long Turkish mesnevi (methnevī) based on Khusraw u Shīrīn, the Persian mathnawī by Niẓāmī (d. 12 March 1209), which was completed in 576/1180. Fahri c…
Date: 2017-08-07

Fahrî of Bursa

(647 words)

Author(s): Çağman, Filiz
Fahri of Bursa ( d. c. 1026/1617) was a famous Ottoman cut-paper artist from Bursa. He usually signed his cut-paper works Fahri Bursavi (Fakhrī Bursawī). His real name was Fahreddin (Fakhr al-Dīn), as indicated by his signature on one of his works in a palace album (H. 2171, fol. 33b). Little is known about his life, even though his reputation as a cut-paper artist spread as far as Europe. One of the earliest references to Fahri is by Aşık Çelebi (Āşık Çelebī), writing in the 970s/1560s, who prais…
Date: 2017-08-07

Fakhkh

(496 words)

Author(s): Turner, John P.
Fakhkh is a wadi located approximately four kilometres northwest of the great mosque in Mecca. It is now called al-Shuhadāʾ (the Martyrs) but has also been known as Wādī al-Zāhir. According to Yāqūt (d. 310/923), ʿAbdallāh b. ʿUmar (d. 132/749–50, son of the second caliph) and other Companions of the Prophet were said to have been buried here. There is a marker in al-Shuhadāʾ for the gravesite of ʿAbdallāh b. ʿUmar, but it is best known as the site of the battle that ended the ill-fated Zaydī re…
Date: 2017-08-07

Fakhr al-Dīn Maʿn

(1,320 words)

Author(s): Winter, Stefan
Fakhr al-Dīn Ma ʿ n (980–1045/1572-1635) was a Druze tax farmer from the Shūf region of what is today southern Lebanon, who was appointed governor (beğ) of the Ottoman district (sancak) of Ṣafad in 1001/1592–3. Often celebrated in local historiography as “the emir of the Druze” and, by extension, as the founder of modern Lebanon, more recent Ottomanist research has rather assimilated him to the ayān (Ar. aʿyān) class of Ottoman provincial notables and the Celali rebels of the late sixteenth/early seventeenth century. According to the Damascene biographer al-Muḥibbī (d. 1111/16…
Date: 2017-08-07

Fakhr-i Mudabbir

(1,262 words)

Author(s): Auer, Blain
Fakhr-i Mudabbir (c.552–633/1157–1236) is the shuhra of Fakhr al-Dīn Muḥammad b. Manṣūr Mubārak Shāh al-Qurayshī, a Persian author and courtier under successive Ghaznavid, Ghūrid, and Shamsī sultans in South Asia. He is noted for his Persian-language literary masterpieces, the Shajara-yi ansāb (“The tree of genealogies”) and the Ādāb al-ḥarb wa-l-shajāʿa (“The etiquette of war and valour”). Members of Fakhr-i Mudabbir’s family were connected to the Ghaznavid court under Sulṭān Maḥmūd (r. 388–421/998–1030). He claims descent from Bilge Tekin (d. 364/974–5), ruler of Ghazna and g…
Date: 2017-08-07

Fakhruddin, H. A. R.

(703 words)

Author(s): Azra, Azyumardi
Haji Abdur Rozak Fakhruddin (1916–95) was a national leader of the Muhammadiyah, one of the largest Muslim organisations in Indonesia. Fondly nicknamed “Pak A. R.” (after his initials), he was born in February 1916 in the village of Cilangkap, in the Purwanggan area of Pakualaman, near Yogyakarta, Central Java. Yogyakarta had been the birthplace of the Muhammadiyah in 1912. His father was K. H. Fakhruddin (d. 1972), who was a penghulu (judge) and batik trader. Fakhruddin completed his primary education at Standaard School Muhammadiyah in 1923, and then continued w…
Date: 2017-08-07

al-Fākhūrī, Arsānyūs

(727 words)

Author(s): Johnson, Rebecca C.
Arsānyūs al-Fākhūrī (1800–83) was a Maronite cleric and qāḍī (judge) born in Baʿabdā in Mount Lebanon, known for composing badīʿiyyāt, works in a highly stylised poetic form that usually involves encomiums on the prophet Muḥammad, with each line of the poem illustrating a different rhetorical trope (badīʿ); al-Fākhūrī adapted the form to Christian religious themes. Born Fāris b. Yūsuf b. Ibrāhīm, al-Fākhūrī, a family so named because his great-grandfather oversaw Beirut’s pottery manufactories before moving to Baʿabdā, was educated at the seminary o…
Date: 2017-08-07
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