Encyclopaedia of Islam, THREE

Purchase Access
Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies

Edited by Kate Fleet, Gudrun Krämer, Denis Matringe, John Nawas and Everett Rowson with a team of more than 20 section editors.

EI-Three is the third edition of Brill’s Encyclopaedia of Islam which sets out the present state of our knowledge of the Islamic World. It is a unique and invaluable reference tool, an essential key to understanding the world of Islam, and the authoritative source not only for the religion, but also for the believers and the countries in which they live.

The Third Edition of the Encyclopaedia of Islam is an entirely new work, with new articles reflecting the great diversity of current scholarship. It is published in five substantial segments each year, both online and in print. The new scope includes comprehensive coverage of Islam in the twentieth century and of Muslim minorities all over the world.

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East Africa

(2,721 words)

Author(s): Alpers, Edward A. | Bang, Anne K.
East Africa is today an important world region of Islam, with a history reaching back to the earliest centuries of the faith. Although data are both unreliable and disputed, the 2014 edition of the CIA World Factbook indicates that Muslims are said to constitute approximately 11.1 percent of the population of Kenya (4.9 millions); 12.1 percent of Uganda (4.2 millions); 35 percent of Tanzania (16.8 millions); 4.6 percent of Rwanda (552,000); 2.5 percent of Burundi (270,000); perhaps ten percent of…
Date: 2017-11-16

Ebubekir Ratib Efendi

(1,097 words)

Author(s): Yesil, Fatih
Ebubekir Ratib Efendi (Abū Bakr Rātib Efendi, 1163–23 Cemaziyülahir (Jumādā II) 1214/1750–22 November 1799) was an Ottoman statesman born in Kastamonu, in the north central region of present-day Turkey. His father, Ali (ʿAlī) Efendi, was a member of the ulema (ʿulamāʾ), who liked to tra…
Date: 2017-11-16

Ebüziyya Mehmed Tevfik

(903 words)

Author(s): Çelik, Birten
Ebüziyya Mehmed Tevfik (Ebū ’l-Deiubareiodotiyāʾ Meḥmed Tevfīq, 17 Rebiülevvel (Rabīʿ al-Awwal) 1265–18 Safer (Ṣafar) 1331/10 February 1849–27 January 1913), a Turkish journalist, printer, editor, critic, lexicographer, writer, calligrapher, bureaucrat, and politician, was born in Istanbul to a family from Konya. He wrote articles under the pseudonym Ebüziyya, which he adopted during his exile in Rhodes, in 1290/1873, when the Ottoman government prohibited him from working as a journalist.…
Date: 2017-11-16

Edebiyat-ı Cedide

(955 words)

Author(s): Kerslake, Celia
Edebiyat-ı Cedide (Edebiyyāt-ı Cedīde, “New Literature”) is one of two names given to a movement in Turkish literature that flourished briefly but intensely in Istanbul in the years 1313–9/1896–1901. The name that became more widely used is that of the journal which, during the years in question, became the organ of the movement, Servet-i Fünun ( Ther…
Date: 2017-11-16

Edhem Paşa

(666 words)

Author(s): Çelik, Birten
Edhem Paşa (1260–1327/1844–1909), an Ottoman military officer and statesmen, who bore the title of Gazi (Ghāzī, lit. “victorious soldier of Islam”; an honorific given to successful generals), was born in Istanbul on 27 Receb (Rajab) 1260/12 August 1844. He started his career in the Ottoman army as a mülazım-ı sani ( mülāzım-ı thānī, second lieutenant) in the regiments of the Imperial Guard (sixth company of the first battalion), in Istanbul, after having graduated from the Mek…
Date: 2017-11-16

Edirne, Treaty of

(674 words)

Author(s): Aslantaş, Selim
The Treaty of Edirne (also known as the Treaty of Adrianople), which ended the Russo-Ottoman War of 1244–5/1828–9, was concluded between the Ottoman Empire and Russia on 15 Rebiülevvel (Rabīʿ I)/14 September 1829. Ottoman-Russian relations had deteriorated in the 1820s, and even the Convention of Akkerman (1242/1826), which resolved all issues of disagreement in Russia’s favour, had failed to relieve the political tension. In the aftermath of the naval disaster at Navarino (1243/1827), the friction erupted into armed conflict (…
Date: 2017-11-16

Education, early-Ottoman

(1,621 words)

Author(s): Zilfi, Madeline C.
In the early Ottoman Empire, up until the modernising reforms of the nineteenth century, and with the exception of children’s Qurʾān schools (mektep, maktab, kuttāb), formal education for Muslims was essentially male and effectively divided between two distinct vocational expectations. The empire’s system of religious colleges, medreses ( madrasas), prepared youths for religious careers. Their more secular counterparts, the schools of the imperial palaces (…
Date: 2017-11-16

Education, general (up to 1500)

(10,347 words)

Author(s): Günther, Sebastian
In its general sense, the word “ education” denotes the act, process, and result of imparting and acquiring knowledge, values, and skills. This expression applies to both early childhood instruction and basic and higher learning that has the goal of providing individuals or groups of people with the intellectual, physical, moral, and spiritual qualities that will help them to grow, develop, and become useful members of the community and society. It also has applications in more purely spiritual or religious, and particularly eschatological, areas. In pre-modern times the concept of education was expressed by a variety of terms, and most of these appear to have been used in this sense as early as in the Qurʾā…
Date: 2017-11-16

Education in Muslim Southeast Asia

(2,424 words)

Author(s): Hefner, Robert W.
Education in Muslim Southeast Asia has long varied in content, sponsorship, and organisation. Before the nineteenth century, the dominant variety of popular Islamic culture was based on a “mystic synthesis” (Ricklefs, Islamisation, 7–10), which combined a commitment to Islamic identity and observance of Islam’s five pillars with the veneration of regional guardian spirits of the earth, water, and air. Instead of networks of madrasa-based scholars, local rulers played the pivotal role in the custodianship and transmission of religious culture. They sponsored public rituals, artistic per…
Date: 2017-11-16

Education in the Indian subcontinent

(2,678 words)

Author(s): Kumar, Nita
Islamic education (the intellectual and cultural formation of an individual) in the Indian subcontinent has been polymorphous and fluid since its introduction a millenium ago. A major change in the millennia-old educational systems of …
Date: 2017-11-16


(550 words)

Author(s): Bouquet, Olivier
The Turkish term efendi (efendī) derives from the Greek authentēs (αύθέντης, “to act on one’s own authority”). In Western sources, it is often translated as “lord,” “master,” or “sir.” Placed at the end of a noun phrase (e.g., Mehmed Emin (Meḥmed Emīn) Efendi), it can also be appended to another title (e.g., for men, bey/beg, paşa; for women, hanım/khānım), or linked to a position or function ( katib/kātib, imam/imām). Historically, it was used to address the Ottoman sultan (padişahımız efendimi…
Date: 2017-11-16


(763 words)

Author(s): Dávid, Géza
Eger (Ott. Eğri, Eğre) is a regionally important town located in the north of present-day Hungary. In 1005–99/1596–87, it was the centre of an Ottoman …
Date: 2017-11-16

Egypt, art and architecture

(2,876 words)

Author(s): Warner, Nicholas
The Arab conquest of Egypt in 19/640 introduced to Egyptian art and architecture a new range of architectural typologies and decorative treatments. At the time of the conquest, extensive monumental remains from the Pharaonic to the late antique periods were preserved in Egypt. Although the formal influence of such buildings on the architecture of the following millennium was slight, the masonry itself provided a seemingly inexhaustible supply of raw materials for new construction. A variety of typologies, such as the courtyard mosque and the madrasa
Date: 2017-11-16

Egypt up to the Ottoman period

(3,377 words)

Author(s): Petry, Carl Forbes
Egypt (that is, the Nile Valley from Alexandria to Aswan) on the eve of occupation by invading Arab armies in the early decades of the first/seventh century had assumed prominence in the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire for its agrarian productivity and its restiveness under doctrinal strictures imposed by the hierarchy of the Greek Church in Constantinople. There is debate as to the extent that resentment over sanctions invalidating the theological tenets of Egypt’s Coptic Church—and consequent…
Date: 2017-11-16