Encyclopaedia of Islam, THREE

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Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies

Edited by Kate Fleet, Gudrun Krämer, Denis Matringe, John Nawas and Everett Rowson with a team of more than 20 section editors.

EI-Three is the third edition of Brill’s Encyclopaedia of Islam which sets out the present state of our knowledge of the Islamic World. It is a unique and invaluable reference tool, an essential key to understanding the world of Islam, and the authoritative source not only for the religion, but also for the believers and the countries in which they live.

The Third Edition of the Encyclopaedia of Islam is an entirely new work, with new articles reflecting the great diversity of current scholarship. It is published in five substantial segments each year, both online and in print. The new scope includes comprehensive coverage of Islam in the twentieth century and of Muslim minorities all over the world.



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al-Dabbāgh, ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz

(953 words)

Author(s): Lory, Pierre
ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz b. Masʿūd  al-Dabbāgh al-Idrīsī al-Ḥasanī (1090–1132/1679–1719, in Fez) was an unusual mystic. He is treated in the prosopographical literature (see Muḥammad b. al-Ṭayyib al-Qādirī, Nashr al-mathānī li-ahl al-qarn al-ḥādī ʿashar wa-l-thānī, ed. Muḥammad Ḥajjī and Aḥmad Tawfīq, Rabat 1977–86, 3:245–6), but most of what we know about him comes from the lengthy book devoted to him by his disciple Aḥmad b. al-Mubārak al-Lamaṭī (d. 1156/1743; al-Qādirī, 4:40–2), al-Dhahab al-Ibrīz min kalām Sayyidī al-Ghawth ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz al-Dabbāgh (“Pure gold from the words …
Date: 2017-08-07

al-Ḍabbī, Abū Jaʿfar

(836 words)

Author(s): Ávila, María Luisa
Abū Jaʿfar Aḥmad b. Yaḥyā b. Aḥmad b. ʿAmīra al-Ḍabbī was an Andalusī scholar well known as the author of Bughyat al-multamis fī taʾrīkh rijāl ahl al-Andalus, a biographical dictionary of scholars that complements Jadhwat al-muqtabis by al-Ḥumaydī (d. 488/1095). Al-Ḍabbī was born in Vélez (in the present-day province of Almería) in about 550/1155 and lived most of his life in Murcia. He died in that city when a wall fell on him in one of his vegetable gardens, in 599/1203. He came early to the world of knowledge: he was not yet ten when he attended lessons by Abū ʿAbdallāh b…
Date: 2017-08-07

“Dabīr”, Mirzā Salāmat ʿAlī

(1,429 words)

Author(s): Naim, Choudhri M.
Mirzā Salāmat ʿAlī “Dabīr” (1803–75) was an Indian poet born in Delhi, who was known especially for his marthiyas (elegies, threnodies) in Urdu. His father, Mirzā Ghulām Ḥusayn (1190–?/1776-?), who reportedly earned his living as a trader, belonged to a family of Shīʿī scholars who had migrated to Delhi from Shiraz and were related to the well-known poet Ahlī-yī Shīrāzī (d. 1942/1535 or 943/1536). Early in the nineteenth century, the family moved to Lucknow, where Salāmat ʿAlī studied the traditional subjects wit…
Date: 2017-08-07

Dabistān-i madhāhib

(827 words)

Author(s): Moin, A. Azfar
The Dabistān-i madhāhib (“School of religions”) is an encyclopaedic work in Persian, which was composed anonymously in mid-eleventh/seventeenth-century India. It describes and classifies various world religions—Zoroastrianism, Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, Islam, Judaism, and Christianity—and several related sects and esoteric groups active in early modern India, Iran, and Central Asia. Combining extensive textual knowledge, oral reports, and personal observations of the author, the Dabistān opens a unique window on the religious climate of the time. Scholars have deb…
Date: 2017-08-07

al-Dabūsī, Abū Zayd

(1,071 words)

Author(s): Wheeler, Brannon M.
Abū Zayd ʿUbaydallāh b. ʿUmar b. ʿĪsā al-Dabūsī (b. c. 367/978, d. 430/1039 or 432/1041, in Bukhara) was a Ḥanafī jurist best known for his theoretical work in explaining juristic disagreements (ʿilm al-khilāf) among the founding authorities of the Ḥanafī school and between the Ḥanafī school and the other major Sunnī law schools. His nisba, al-Dabūsī, is taken from the city of Dabūsiyya (also Dabūsa), located between Bukhara and Samarqand. Some biographers, including Ibn al-ʿImād (d. 1089/1679), give his name as ʿAbdallāh rather than ʿUbaydallāh. All biographical notices credit …
Date: 2017-08-07

Dāgh Dihlavī, Navāb Mīrzā Khān

(2,581 words)

Author(s): Shafi, Muhammad | Farooqi, Mehr A.
Dāgh (lit., scar, stain, mark, sorrow) is the nom de plume (takhallus) of Navāb Mīrzā Khān Dihlavī, originally called Ibrāhīm, a pre-eminent modern Urdu poet. He was the son of Navāb Shams al-Dīn Khān of Jhirkā Firūzpūr—who belonged to the aristocratic Lohārū family, to which the great poet Ghālib (d. 1869) was also related by marriage—and Vazīr Begam (usually called Chhotʾī Begam). Navāb Mīrzā Khān was born in Chāndnī Chawk, Delhi, on 12 Dhū l-Ḥijja 1246/25 May 1831 (see his horoscope in Jalva-yi Dāgh, 9). In 1837, his father was hanged by the British and his property confisc…
Date: 2017-08-07

Daghestan

(8,249 words)

Author(s): Kemper, Michael
Daghestan (Dāghistān) is a republic of the Russian Federation. Located in the northeastern Caucasus, it has an area of 50,300 square kilometres and borders Kalmykia and the Stavropol region in the north, Chechnya and Georgia in the west, Azerbaijan in the south, and the Caspian Sea in the east. Daghestan’s geography ranges from coastal plain to foothills to alpine areas. The population of 2,910,249 (2010 census) includes speakers of Turkic languages (Kumyks, 14.9 percent; Azeris, 4.5 percent; N…
Date: 2017-08-07

Dahbīdiyya

(4,031 words)

Author(s): Babadjanov, Bakhtiyar
Dahbīdiyya is the name (nisba) of a family which, in the historiography and hagiography of Central Asia, was applied to descendants of Jalāl al-Dīn Khvājagī al-Kāsānī, later called al-Dahbīdī, known also as Makhdūm-i Aʿẓam b. Jamāl al-Dīn (d. 949/1542). He was a well-known shaykh of the Naqshbandiyya ṭarīqa (Ar., lit., way, hence Ṣūfī order), a pupil of Muḥammad b. Burhān al-Dīn al-Samarqandī, better known as Muḥammad Qāḍī (d. 922/1516), who was, in his turn, a pupil of Khvāja ʿUbaydallāh Aḥrār (d. 895/1490), the famous shaykh of the Naqshbandiyya (a widespread ṭarīqa whose eponymous…
Date: 2017-08-07

Dahira

(815 words)

Author(s): Babou, Cheikh Anta
The use of the word dahira in a religious context appears to be unique to the Ṣūfī turuuq (orders, from Ar. ṭuruq, pl. of ṭarīqa, lit., way) of Senegal. The Arabic word dāʾira has meanings involving mathematical concepts (e.g., ring, circuit, circumference) and administrative notions (e.g., district, bureau, agency) (Wehr, 347). In Morocco, for example, a dahira (local spelling) is a local police unit above the commissariat; in Algeria, a daïra (local spelling) is a district or “circle,” the second largest administrative unit, below the wilaya (wilāya, governorate). The connotati…
Date: 2017-06-22

Dahiratoul Moustarchidina wal Moustarchidaty

(1,696 words)

Author(s): Samson-Ndaw, Fabienne
The Dahiratoul Moustarchidina wal Moustarchidaty (Ar., dāʾirat al-mustarshidīna wa-l-mustarshidāti, lit., the circle of those men and women who follow the straight path) is a Senegalese Islamic movement that originated in the Tijāniyya (a Ṣūfī order founded in Tlemcen, Algeria, in 1195/1781 by Aḥmad b. Muḥammad al-Tījānī, d. 1815, who had a great influence on North Africa and sub-Saharan Africa). Created in the 1970s in Tivaouane (Wolof, Tiwawane), a city in western Senegal, near Thiès, and in the Tījānī zāwiya (Ṣūfī lodge) of the Sy family of marabouts, it was originally…
Date: 2017-08-07

Dahlak Islands

(462 words)

Author(s): Erlich, Haggai
The Dahlak Islands are a group of 124 islands in the Red Sea, off the port of Massawa, in present-day Eritrea. Only four are inhabited; the main island is Dahlak al-Kabir. The islands have been known from ancient times for their marine life and pearl fishery. For the Christian kingdom of Aksumite Ethiopia (c. 100 to 940 C.E.), they served as a bridgehead for invasions of Arabia until they were occupied by the Muslims in 83/702. From then on they served instead as a bridgehead of Islam into the Hor…
Date: 2017-08-07

Daḥlān, Aḥmad b. Zaynī

(636 words)

Author(s): Peskes, Esther
Aḥmad b. Zaynī b. Aḥmad Daḥlān (d. 1304/1886) was a sayyid of the Ḥasanid line (that is, a descendant of the prophet Muḥammad through his grandson al-Ḥasan) and one of the most influential scholars in Mecca through the 1870s until his death. He was born in Mecca sometime between 1231/1816 and 1233/1818 and died in Medina. He completed his education in the jurisprudential tradition of the four schools of law ( madhhab, pl. madhāhib) in Sunnī Islam solely in Mecca, where he also made a career as a scholar of the Shāfiʿī school. A moderate Ṣūfī (mystic) in the style of …
Date: 2017-08-07

Dahlan, Kyai Haji Ahmad

(1,056 words)

Author(s): Kaptein, Nico J. G.
Kyai Haji Ahmad Dahlan (1868–1923) was a Javanese religious official attached to the Yogyakarta sultanate, who founded the reformist Muhammadiyah movement in Yogyakarta in 1912. He was born in the kauman, the quarter for devout Muslims near the Great Mosque, in the royal city of the sultanate of Yogyakarta, into a family of the upper class of the sultanate’s religious apparatus. At birth he was given the name Muhammad Darwish. His father, Kyai Haji Abu Bakar bin Kyai Mas Sulaiman, was a religious scholar (Javanese kyai), who worked as a preacher (Jav. ketib) of the royal palace, and hi…
Date: 2017-08-07

Dahrīs

(4,194 words)

Author(s): Crone, Patricia
Dahrīs were thinkers in the early Islamic world whose cosmology left little or no room for God. Usually translated ‘materialists” or “eternalists,” the term has also been used in a generic sense for anyone, such as a modern scientist, who deems the universe to be explicable without reference to divine intervention. 1. The early Dahrīs The Dahrīs are first mentioned in Iraq in the 120s/740s. By profession they seem mostly to have been doctors, astrologers, alchemists, and others interested in the workings of the natural world. In intellectual style they were mutakallims. They specialis…
Date: 2017-08-07

Dāʿī (in Ismāʿīlī Islam)

(2,135 words)

Author(s): Walker, Paul E.
Dāʿī (s), in Ismāʿīlī Islam, were the agents of the daʿwa (the mission appealing for adherence and support), the earliest records of which date from about 261/875, in Iraq, concerning the activities of the Qarāmiṭa, led by Ḥamdān Qarmaṭ (d. 321/933) and his brother-in-law ʿAbdān (d. 286/899). It is likely, however, that the movement had already been in existence for some time. Somewhat later, we begin to find names of dāʿīs, many of whom were converted by a certain al-Ḥusayn al-Ahwāzī, who was apparently acting on instructions from a central headquarters in Salami…
Date: 2017-08-07

Dajjāl

(883 words)

Author(s): Cook, David B.
The Dajjāl is a malevolent creature in human form, who appears at the end of the world as the apocalyptic opponent of Jesus. The Arabic word dajjāl (lit., “cheat, impostor”) is probably cognate with the Syriac dagalo (deceiver), which is used frequently for the Antichrist. The Dajjāl is not mentioned or alluded to in the Qurʾān but appears in apocalyptic works and canonical ḥadīth collections. The Dajjāl is usually said to be Jewish and to come from the eastern part of the Muslim world, either Isfahan or various other cities in Iraq, Fars, or Khurāsān. He i…
Date: 2017-08-07

Dakar

(1,878 words)

Author(s): Cantone, Cleo
Dakar, the modern capital of Senegal, is a port city situated on the Cap Vert peninsula, on the Atlantic coast. Founded by the Lebu community (the Wolof-speaking ethnic group inhabiting the Cap Vert peninsula) in the ninth/fifteenth century, Ndakaru, as it was called then, was both a fishing village and an independent republic that maintained commercial relations with Europe’s encroaching colonial powers. As the Lebu migrated eastwards, they founded Kunun, Tengeej (Rufisque), Bargny and Dakar, replacing a Sossé village (Brigaud, Delcour). In colonial times…
Date: 2017-08-07

Dakhinī Urdū (language and literature)

(1,898 words)

Author(s): Gricourt, Marguerite
Dakhinī (or Dakhanī, Dakkinī, lit., southern) is a southern form of Hindi- Urdu that was, and to some extent still is, spoken in the Deccan. The mixed language of northern India, Hindi or Hindavī, migrated south with itinerant religious men as early as the fifth/eleventh century and with troops during the military expeditions led by the sultan of Delhi, ʿAlāʾ al-Dîn Khaljī (r. 695–715/1296–1316). When Muḥammad b. Tughluq (r. 725–52/1325–51), the second sultan of the following dynasty, the Tughluqids (r. 720…
Date: 2017-08-07

Dāmād

(677 words)

Author(s): Peirce, Leslie P.
A Persian word meaning son-in-law, dāmād was a title given to high-ranking officials married to princesses of the Ottoman dynasty. The practice of marrying sisters, daughters, and granddaughters of the reigning sultan to statesmen began in earnest in the late ninth/fifteenth century, as dynastic marriages with other ruling houses waned. Sultans of the tenth/sixteenth century drew many of their viziers from among the dynasty’s dāmāds; six of the grand viziers of Sulṭān Süleymān I (r. 926–74/1520–66) were dāmāds. Emerging during the empire’s high imperial phase (1453 to 1566), dāmād-…
Date: 2017-08-07

Damad İbrahim Paşa

(1,320 words)

Author(s): Polat, Süleyman
Damad İbrahim Paşa (Dāmād İbrāhīm Paşa, d. 1010/1601) was of Bosnian origin. After rising to the post of silahdar ( silāḥdār, sword-bearer) in the sultan’s harem, he was appointed ağa (āghā) of the janissaries (commander in chief of the janissaries) at the beginning of Safer (Ṣafar) 988/end of March 1580 and then beylerbeyi ( beglerbegi, governor-general) of Rumeli on 3 Safer (Ṣafar) 990/27 February 1582 (BOA KK, no. 239, p. 279). At the end of Zilkade (Dhū l-Qaʿda) 990/December 1582, he was given the rank of vizier, and in Zilhicce (Dhūl-Ḥijja) 990/January 1583, he was appointed beylerbey…
Date: 2017-08-07
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